After identifying the problem and its potential consequences, decision makers prepare a set of alternatives/solutions (based on brainstorming), from which should be chosen the one that will be the most optimal in relation to the identified problem.
Implement in practice principle: the more complex the problem, the more creative and unconventional alternatives should be considered. A set of factors that may realistically limit a given alternative and its further implementation should be considered. Such limitations include legal, ethical or moral norms, as well as technology, economic factors or informal social norms. Creative thinking is necessary because, as practice shows, new and unique solutions are rarely proposed. In addition, new areas are rarely searched, but most often we are limited to the closest neighborhood of the currently used solution.
In practice, we limit ourselves too quickly to considering already existing alternatives that narrow the field of view. We should be willing to seek new alternatives. Of course, careful exploration of the various possibilities is time-consuming and energy-consuming, but it is inevitable. Searching for solutions based on brainstorming seems to be an ideal solution.
Brainstorming is a bridge between a less formal approach to problem solving and lateral thinking. This means that the purpose of brainstorming is to make people want to create ideas that may seem absurd at first glance. Some of these ideas offer the opportunity to create original and creative solutions to problems, while other concepts can drive a spiral of even more ideas. It is a chain of creating solutions in creative thinking.
There are many modifications to the classic brainstorming (the selected ones are described later in the module), but all of them are based on a similar procedure. The brainstorming scenario should look like this: defining the problems and its consequences, choosing a leader (moderator) who oversees the correct course of the brainstorming, and a group of people involved in the creative process. The brainstorming procedure can be expressed in the following scheme: introduction - creating ideas/solutions - analysis and evaluation of proposed solutions. A group of people interested in looking for solutions sit down in a circle. Each of the people involved in turn presents his ideas. The more the better.
The role of the moderator is to collect all ideas in a place that is generally accessible and visible to all members of the group. The list of ideas can be created on the board or using a flipchart, preferably using keywords or short phrases to show ideas. Anyone can take the floor and the leader watches over the agenda and, importantly, we do not note the author of the idea. All participants of the brainstorming add their own ideas (even the most unrealistic ones). These ideas can become the seed for new, even more creative ideas.
Source: own elaboration.
- We focus on the number of ideas, disregarding their quality at the initial stage of the brainstorming (i.e. ideas, ideas and ideas once again),
- We avoid criticism at the level of generating ideas (the time for their evaluation will come later),
- We accept unusual ideas (at first look crazy, infantile or even out of touch with reality),
- We create a chain of ideas by improving each new one (create new ideas from the resulting ones),
- Implement in practice principle : the more complex the problem, the more creative and unconventional alternatives should be considered,
- One should not forget about the limitations of the proposed alternative (such limitations can be classified as norms: legal, ethical economic reasons or informal social norms).
Scenario of brainstorming implementation
Source: own elaboration.
An example: Two students are going to set up a start-up.
Young students struggle with the problem of financing the new economic activity. As a result of the brainstorming, the students developed the following ways to finance a business.
Source: own elaboration.
During the brainstorming session, participants should let go of criticism or reward and evaluate the proposed ideas. Assessment of the proposed solutions at this stage of the brainstorming process is a destimulant for the generated ideas and causes intimidation of the other group members and limitation of creativity. A good time to evaluate ideas is the end of the session or the second evaluation meeting - then you should look for tools and solutions, already using conventional approaches. Group brainstorming offers the opportunity to encourage group collaboration by eliminating judgment.
After collecting the ideas, it is time to evaluate the collected material. Duplicates should be eliminated first. Other ideas should be discussed, assessed and analyzed with respect for all team members. What matters is the constructive evaluation and criticism of the collected material. It is worth preparing a transparent evaluation system, e.g. each participant receives a certain number of stickers, which he can assign to the best ideas.
Another idea is to award points. Each participant chooses 5 best ideas according to him and assigns them the appropriate number of points, i.e. 5 points - the best solution, 4 points - next, etc. Another method of making a selection is that each participant receives a certain number of points (usually a number from 5 to 10) and then gives points to those ideas that he likes best. He can distribute the points freely, i.e. he can, for example, award one point to many ideas, a few points to several ideas, or all points to one idea.
It is important that each participant has the same tool and awards the same number of points. After you have ranked the best ideas, you can move on to the summary. Describe the chosen solutions and define its implementation plan. A standard brainstorming session can take anywhere from 1 to 2 hours.
Brainstorming isn't just for the group. Individual brainstorming can be carried out. Identify the problem and write it down as a question. Then, for a specified period of time (20-30 minutes), you should write down ideas for solving the problem. A good way, as with group brainstorming, is to jot down key words and short phrases. You should not judge any solution in your mind. Then it's time to put together and evaluate your ideas. Finally, the core of the solution must be found.
https://www.lynskysolutions.pl/baza-wiedzy/burza-mozgow-i-jej-rodzaje-generuj-pomysly-na-rozne-sposoby/, Access 2021 10 21).