Alternative of solving problem

a variant that allows for solving the situation taking into account future consequences (positive and negative as well).


absorbing process from the external environment of insight, inputs and information that are relevant to decode and interpret “what is happening” in that given moment.


a bridge that connects a less formal approach to problem solving with lateral thinking, focuses on the number of ideas, does not evaluate ideas and allows them to be created in large amount.

Certain environments

information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation.

Cognitive flexibility

Cognitive flexibility (CF) is the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unexpected conditions in the environment. Also referred to as “attention switching,” “cognitive shifting,” “mental flexibility, “set shifting,” and “task switching”.

Cognitive rigidity

lack of cognitive flexibility, opposite of cognitive flexibility, also inability to change behaviour or beliefs when they are ineffective in order to reach your objective.


The process of two or more people or organizations working together to complete a task or achieve a goal.


The action of successfully transmitting information or a message to a receiver through a channel shared with the sender and in a code or language understood by the parties involved in the process.

Communication skills

These are a set of abilities possessed by the individual, which can be developed throughout life, with the aim of enabling the individual to communicate more efficiently, and thus enhance their social relationships.


a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. Key competences are those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment.

Complex problem

this is a difficulty in making decisions that must be considered on an individual basis and the results of actions taken to address this problem can be described as highly uncertain.


According to Sternberg and Lubart (1999, p. 3), creativity is "the ability to produce work that is both novel (i.e., original, unexpected) and appropriate (i.e., useful, adaptive concerning task constraints)".

Creativity Techniques

Creativity techniques are a tool used to awake and nurture the creative potential of individuals and teams.

Critical Thinking

the intellectually disciplined process of actively conceptualizing, applying, analysing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

Design Thinking

A process typically used by designers but recently inspiring entrepreneurs in their decision-making. Entrepreneurs use reflection, alternatives, visualisation, empathy and creative problem solving to identify unique business opportunities.

Decision making

“a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs”/desired outcomes. (McShane and Von Glinow, 2010, p. 198).

Decision making limitations

legal, ethical, financial or political barriers blocking the implementation of the idea.

Decision-making tree

“a visual map that shows two or more distinct decision pathways” (Armstrong, 2021).

Decisional assumptions

decision-making issues with two main spheres: beliefs about cause-effect relationships and preferences regarding possible outcomes.

Digital support

Means through which information is communicated or stored in an electronic format.

Digital communication

Communication that takes place through the digital medium, through the use of technology.

Effective Communication

It is a type of communication in which we manage to transmit the message in an understandable and very clear way for the receiver without causing doubts, confusion or possible wrong interpretations.

Emotional Intelligence

The ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions.


A process of identification to others’ emotional states and feelings.

Environmental factors

uncontrolled factors beyond the control of the decision-maker

Ethical dilemma

a situation in which a person must decide whether or not to do something that, although benefiting them or the organization, or both, may be considered unethical (Schermerhorn, Osborn & Hunt, 2002, p. 13).


assigning meanings and recognizable patters of thought and actions for what predictable they can be.


establishing cause-effect correlations upon what we are experiencing based on assumptions and following deductions.


our “ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and to select the best course of action without conscious reasoning. Intuition is both an emotional experience and a rapid nonconscious analytic process that involves both pattern matching and action scripts”. (McShane and Von Glinow, 2010, p.208).

Investment Theory of Creativity

The Investment Theory of Creativity states that creativity is in large part a decision. Creative people, like good investors, develop ideas that are considered novel and perhaps even a little ridiculous at the time, i.e., they "buy low." Once their ideas have gained some acceptance, creatives "sell high," reap the profits from their good idea, and move on to the next unpopular idea.

ICT tools

Information and Communication Technologies. It consists of a series of platforms, applications and systems that allow us to transmit, manage and receive information.


1. the ability to combine personal qualities with relevant knowledge and experience to form opinions and make decisions (Likierman, 2020). 2. the core of exemplary leadership; a contextually informed decision-making process encompassing three different domains: people, strategy, and crisis. Within each domain, leadership judgements follow a three-phase process: preparation, the call, and execution. Good leadership judgment is supported by contextual knowledge of one’s social network, organization, and stakeholders (Tichy & Bennis, 2008)

Kanban Method

Tool to visualize the workflow. It consists of boards divided into rows and columns: the first for the project or activity and the second for its degree of development.

Mental shifting

is the process that makes it possible to adapt to the change. Shifting is the main component in cognitive flexibility.

Noise in communication

In communication, any unwanted signal that is mixed with the useful signal to be transmitted is called noise.

Nonprogrammed decisions

decisions required by unique and complex management problems.


The term on-premise refers to the type of installation of a software solution. This installation takes place within the company's server and ICT infrastructure. This is the traditional model for enterprise applications.


the process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. It involves organizing and interpreting various stimuli into a psychological experience (Gibson, et. al., 2012, p. 94).

Programmed decisions

specific procedures developed for repetitive and routine problems.

Risk environments

decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence.


A person’s internal reflection of internal beliefs, driving forces and motivation agents that lead him/her to execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations.


A psychological process of auto-regulation that allows people to orientate their behaviours towards favourable and more desired thoughts and feelings.

Sense of initiative

the ability to identify available opportunities for personal, professional and/or business activities, including ‘bigger picture’ issues that provide the context in which people live and work, such as a broad understanding of the workings of the economy, and the opportunities and challenges facing an employer or organisation.


Work methodology based on mobility, flexibility, employee autonomy, teamwork and collaboration, and the use of new technologies, within an "agile" work methodology.

Social Intelligence

Ability to comprehend how to build and nurture positive and stimulating interpersonal relationship.

Stroop effect

the delay in reaction time between automatic and controlled processing of information, in which the names of words interfere with the ability to name the colour of ink used to print the words.


An organized way of working among several people to achieve common goals. In teamwork, the skills of the members are complementary, they maintain individual and mutual responsibility, as well as a strong common commitment to the objectives.

Team creativity

Team creativity can be defined as the joint novelty and usefulness of a final idea developed by a group of people.

The 4P model of creativity

The 4P model of creativity refers to the creative person, creative processes, creative products, and press (sometimes referred to as place).

The Cloud

Servers accessed through the Internet, and the software and databases running on those servers. It allows different multimedia files to be stored, shared and managed.

Uncertain environments

managers have so little information on hand that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes.

Virtual work team

A work team consisting of a group of people working towards a common goal, but whose individuals are not physically together.